zyklon b ig farben

Weiler-ter Meer, concentrated on high-quality specialty dyes. Farbenindustrie and the Control Thereof", formalized the seizure for "knowingly and prominently ... building up and maintaining German war potential". Profits of the three firms were pooled, with BASF and Bayer getting 43 percent and Agfa 14 percent of all profits. [9] Described as "the most notorious German industrial concern during the Third Reich"[10] in the 1940s the company relied on slave labour from concentration camps, including 30,000 from Auschwitz,[11] and was involved in medical experiments on inmates at both Auschwitz and the Mauthausen concentration camp. In 2004 the University of Frankfurt, housed in the former IG Farben head office, set up a permanent exhibition on campus, the Norbert Wollheim memorial, for the slave labourers and those killed by Zyklon B. [53] Hörlein became chair of Bayer's supervisory board. "Kontrollratsgesetz Nr. "IG Farben is infamous for its mass production of Zyklon-B, the primary gas used to kill millions during the Holocaust." Produk yang dihasilkan oleh IG Farben termasuk pewarna sintetik, getah nitril, poliuretana, Prontosil, dan Resochin, antara lain. Three major firms BASF, Bayer and Hoechst, produced several hundred different dyes. At least 30.000 slave workers died in this camp; a lot more were deported to the gas chambers. Syarikat itu juga membuat gas racun Zyklon B, yang digunakan untuk membunuh tahanan di … As almost all its assets and all its activities had been transferred to the original constituent companies, IG Farben was from 1952 largely a shell company with no real activity. McCloy. Hydrogen cyanide, a poisonous gas that interferes with cellular res Some of the slave labourers were compensated in the 1950s. (M… Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 September 2018. 2 pursuant to Military Government Law No. [citation needed] In January 1955 the Allied High Commission issued the I.G. They paid RM 150 per woman, all of whom died as a result of the research; the camp had asked for RM 200 per person, but Bayer had said that was too high. Not a single member of the management of IG Farben before 1933 supported the Nazi Party; four members, or a third, of the IG Farben supervisory board were themselves Jewish. Dyestuffs, pharmaceuticals, photographic supplies, explosives, and a myriad of other products poured forth in ever-growing volume and variety. Zyklon B was pure Prussic acid, a lethal poison produced by I.G. [61] Dürrfeld was sentenced to eight years, then pardoned in 1951 by John McCloy, the American high commissioner for Germany, after which he joined the management or supervisory boards of several chemical companies. Otto Bayer discovered the polyaddition for the synthesis of polyurethane in 1937. Farbenindustrie A.G. – under the leadership of Carl Duisberg and Carl Bosch. IG Farben (short for Interessen-Gemeinschaft Farbenindustrie AG) (" ... (Nazi) regime, including manufacturing Zyklon B poison for the gas chambers. The French followed suit in the areas they controlled. [54] According to the post-war testimony of Rudolf Höss, the Auschwitz commandant, he was asked by Walter Dürrfeld [de], technical manager of the IG Farben Auschwitz plant, whether it was true that Jews were being cremated at Auschwitz. [29] The designation was used as the title of an East German film, The Council of the Gods (1950). [8] A decade later, it was a Nazi Party donor and, after the Nazi takeover of Germany in 1933, a major government contractor, providing significant material for the German war effort. [41], This message was repeated by Wilhelm Rudolf Mann, who chaired a meeting of the Bayer division board of directors on 16 February 1938, and who in an earlier meeting had referred to the "miracle of the birth of the German nation": "The chairman points out our incontestable being in line with the National Socialist attitude in the association of the entire 'Bayer' pharmaceutica and insecticides; beyond that, he requests the heads of the offices abroad to regard it as their self-evident duty to collaborate in a fine and understanding manner with the functionaries of the Party, with the DAF (German Workers' Front), et cetera. The Nazis, who had won 37.5% of the vote in the July 1932 election, plummeted to … The judges in this case, heard before Military Tribunal VI, were Curtis Grover Shake (presiding judge), former Chief Judge of the Indiana Supreme Court; James Morris from North Dakota; Paul M. Hebert, dean of the Law School of Louisiana State University; and Clarence F. Merrell, a lawyer from Indiana, and friend of Judge Shake, as an alternate judge. In the United Kingdom Brunner Mond, Nobel Industries, United Alkali Company and British Dyestuffs merged to form Imperial Chemical Industries in September 1926. Zyklon B was the trade name of a cyanide-based pesticide invented in Germany in the early 1920s. Wasn't IG Farben already taking in political money to find such chemicals? Formed in 1925 from a merger of six chemical companies—BASF, Bayer, Hoechst, Agfa, Chemische Fabrik Griesheim-Elektron, and Chemische Fabrik vorm. The defendants in this case had all been directors of IG Farben, a large German conglomerate of chemical firms. Weiler Ter Meer[1]—it was seized by the Allies after World War II and divided back into its constituent companies. [citation needed] (see and ) It also brought new evidence concerning complex price and marketing agreements between DuPont, a major investor in and producer of leaded gasoline, U.S. Indu… The IG Farben plant's workforce consisted of slave labour from Auschwitz, leased to the company by the SS for a low daily rate. [5] Several IG Farben scientists were awarded a Nobel Prize. Farben – Leuna plant] and Heinrich Gattineau [a Farben offic… [65][2] The division of property followed the division of Germany into four zones: American, British, French and Soviet. IG Farben - Wikipedia Between December 1943 and March 1944, Majdanek received approximately 18,000 so-called "invalids," many of whom where subsequently gassed with Zyklon B. Majdanek concentration camp - Wikipedia Du Bois, Josiah Ellis; Johnson, Edward (1953). The pesticide Zyklon B, for which IG Farben held the patent, was manufactured by Degesch (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Schädlingsbekämpfung), which IG Farben owned 42.2 percent of (in shares) and which had IG Farben managers in its Managing Committee. Farben. I, in charge of nitrogen and gasoline production; Head of the chemical warfare committee at the war ministry; 8 years including time already served; died 1990, Removed from trial due to medical reasons, 2 years including time already served-died 1966, 6 years including time already served; died 1969, 2 years including time already served-died 15 Nov 1950, 3 years including time already served; died 1966, 1½ years including time already served; died 1965, 2 years including time already served; died 1954, 8 years including time already served; died 1967, Head of sales for dyestuffs for south-eastern Europe, 1½ years including time already served. [43], Staff of the Bayer group at IG Farben conducted medical experiments on concentration-camp inmates at Auschwitz and at the Mauthausen concentration camp. It includes other Farben Vorstand plant-managers and embraces all who knowingly participated in the shaping of the corporate policy.[3][4]. Before the war the dyestuff companies had a near monopoly in the world market which they lost during the conflict. Similar mergers took place in other countries. Farbenindustrie A.G. und die Gründung der Nachfolgegesellschaften", List of major perpetrators of the Holocaust, Nazis and Nazi Collaborators (Punishment) Law, Trial of the Major War Criminals before the International Military Tribunal, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=IG_Farben&oldid=992193724, Conglomerate companies disestablished in 1951, Conglomerate companies established in 1925, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from September 2018, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from December 2020, All Wikipedia articles needing clarification, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2018, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2012, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Percentage of production ordered by Auschwitz, Joined supervisory board of the Bunawerke Hüls GmbH, Supervisory board member, manager of IG Farben Auschwitz, Supervisory board member, head of fuel sector at IG Farben Auschwitz, Board member for Deutsche Gasolin AG, Feldmühle, and Papier- und Zellstoffwerke AG; consultant and board member for Ruhrchemie AG Oberhausen, President, Deutsch-Ibero-Amerikanische Gesellschaft, Chair of the board of a chemistry firm in, Board member, head of IG Farben's Upper Rhine Business Group, IG Farben board chair and led the reestablishment of. According to the historian Peter Hayes, "the killings were an open secret within Farben, and people worked at not reflecting upon what they knew."[39]. [55] The general manager of Degesch is said to have learned about the gassings from Kurt Gerstein of the SS. "IG Farben-Haus, Geschichte und Gegenwart" (in German). Throughout that decade it purged itself of its Jewish employees; the remainder left in 1938. Farbenindustrie AG in Liquidation).[66]. The indictment was filed on May 3, 1947; the trial lasted from August 27, 1947, until July 30, 1948. Following several later mergers the main successor companies are Agfa, BASF, Bayer and Sanofi. In 1913 these eight firms produced almost 90 percent of the world supply of dyestuffs and sold about 80 percent of their production abroad. [18], At the beginning of the 20th century, the German chemical industry dominated the world market for synthetic dyes. Resumed his position at Bayer. IG Farben) oli suuri saksalainen kemianteollisuuden yhtymä, monialayhtymä, joka oli toiminnassa vuosina 1925–1952. The remaining property, worth DM 21 million (£6.7 million or €10.7 million), went to a buyer. Volume X: The I.G. The United States of America vs. Carl Krauch, et al. While it did not join a national compensation fund set up in 2001 to pay the victims, it contributed 500,000 DM (£160,000 or €255,646) towards a foundation for former captive labourers under the Nazi regime. Held from 1947 to 1948 as one of the subsequent Nuremberg trials, the IG Farben trial saw 23 IG Farben directors tried for war crimes and 13 convicted. 9, "Seizure of Property owned by I.G. Archived from the original on 14 March 2007. Once Hitler officially came to power, they agreed on a formal Reich contract t… (Monowitz came to be known as Auschwitz III; Auschwitz I was the administrative centre and Auschwitz II-Birkenau the extermination camp.) [a] These companies continued to operate as an informal cartel and played a major role in the West German Wirtschaftswunder. [2], Willing cooperation with the slave labor utilization of the Third Reich was a matter of corporate policy that permeated the whole Farben organization... For this reason, criminal responsibility goes beyond the actual immediate participants at Auschwitz. [54], Other IG Farben staff appear to have known. In 1932, representatives met with Hitler to ascertain if he would support their endeavors. IG Farben was once the world's largest chemicals company, and the Allied powers ordered it dismantled after 1945. Nobody could live in Auschwitz and work in the plant, or even come down to the plant, without knowing what was common knowledge to everybody. IG Farben scientists made fundamental contributions to all areas of chemistry. In World War II, Degesch (42.5 per cent owned by IG Farben) was the trademark holder of Zyklon B, the poison gas used at some Nazi extermination camps. The remaining few left in 1938 after Hermann Göring issued a decree, as part of the Nazis' Four Year Plan (announced in 1936), that the German government would make foreign exchange available to German firms to fund construction or purchases overseas only if certain conditions were met, which included making sure the company employed no Jews.[9]. But the move, announced at a recent stockholders' meeting, has outraged World War II survivors, who point out that IG Farben produced the Zyklon B … Also presided over the GfK (Society for Consumer Research) and the Foreign Trade Committee of the BDI, Federation of German Industry. [24] In 1904, after returning to Germany, he proposed a nationwide merger of the producers of dye and pharmaceuticals in a memorandum to Gustav von Brüning, the senior manager at Hoechst. It had been continually criticized over the years for failing to pay compensation to the former labourers; its stated reason for its continued existence after 1952 was to administer its claims and pay its debts. Weiler Ter Meer (1.9 percent). Laajimmillaan IG Farben oli maailman neljänneksi suurin yritys General Motorsin, US Steelin ja Standard Oilin jälkeen. [25][page needed], Hoechst and several pharmaceutical firms refused to join. During a trip to the United States in the spring of 1903, he had visited several of the large American trusts such as Standard Oil, U.S. Steel, International Paper and Alcoa. The firm's factories included a synthetic rubber plant at the Auschwitz concentration camp where 30,000 people worked until they died or were deemed unfit and sent to the gas chambers. [45], For one experiment, which tested an anaesthetic, Bayer had 150 women sent from Auschwitz to its own facility. Of the 24 defendants arraigned, 13 were found guilty on one or the other counts of the indictment and sentenced to prison terms ranging from one and one half to eight years, including time already served; 10 defendants were acquitted of all charges. IG Farben owned 42.5 percent of Degesch shares, and three members of Degesch's 11-person executive board, Wilhelm Rudolf Mann, Heinrich Hörlein and Carl Wurster, were directors of IG Farben. Instead, Hoechst and Cassella made an alliance based on mutual equity stakes in 1904. [2] In 1945, according to Raymond G. Stokes, it manufactured all the synthetic rubber and methanol in Germany, 90 percent of its plastic and "organic intermediates", 84 percent of its explosives, 75 percent of its nitrogen and solvents, around 50 percent of its pharmaceuticals, and around 33 percent of its synthetic fuel. Only in the case of Auschwitz, where IG Farben had constructed a plant next to the concentration camp with the clear intent to use inmates as slave workers, did the tribunal consider the evidence sufficient to prove that IG Farben acted on its own initiative. IG Farben was the private German chemicals company allied with the Nazis that manufactured the Zyklon B gas used to commit genocide against … (The two other industrialist trials were the Flick Trial and the Krupp Trial.). This prompted Duisberg and Heinrich von Brunck, chairman of BASF, to accelerate their negotiations. IG's 42.5 percent of the stock in Degesch translated into three seats on its Administrative Committee, occupied by members of Farben's own, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Monowitz concentration camp § Buna Werke, "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1939", United Nations War Crimes Commission 1949, "IG Farben-Haus, Geschichte und Gegenwart", "Joseph Borkin, Antitrust Lawyer, Author Dies", "Philipp Heinrich Hörlein (1882–1954)", "I.G. Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Trials of War Criminals before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals under Control Council Law No. Acting as leaders in a conspiracy to commit the crimes mentioned under counts 1, 2, and 3. [35] In February 1941 Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler signed an order[36] supporting the construction of an IG Farben Buna-N (synthetic rubber) plant—known as Monowitz Buna Werke (or Buna)—near the Monowitz concentration camp, part of the Auschwitz concentration camp complex in German-occupied Poland. "'Straight to Hell' Bypasses Substance,", "Records of the United States Nuernberg War Crimes Trials, United States of America v Carl Krauch et al. Beginning in September 1941, Zyklon B, the brand name for hydrogen cyanide (HCN), was the poison used to kill at least a million people in gas chambers at Nazi concentration and death camps such as Auschwitz and Majdanek, both in Poland.Unlike the Nazis' earlier methods of mass murder, Zyklon B, which was originally used as a common disinfectant and insecticide, proved to be an … Fritz Bauer Institute. (1947–1948), also known as the IG Farben trial, was the sixth of 12 trials for war crimes the U.S. authorities held in their occupation zone in Germany (Nuremberg) against leading industrialists of Nazi Germany. [7], The company had ties in the 1920s to the liberal German People's Party and was accused by the Nazis of being an "international capitalist Jewish company". Of course all of the Farben people knew what was going on. [37] One of IG Farben's subsidiaries supplied the poison gas, Zyklon B, that killed over one million people in gas chambers. Interessengemeinschaft Farbenindustrie AG (German for ''Dye industry syndicate corporation''), commonly known as IG Farben, was a German chemical and pharmaceutical conglomerate. Although there was some cooperation between the technical staff in production and accounting, there was little cooperation between the firms in other areas. [64] On 30 November 1945 Allied Control Council Law No. Farben both in Germany and globally. 9" (PDF). [1] The supervisory board members became widely known as, and were said to call themselves jokingly, the "Council of Gods" (Rat der Götter). Fritz ter Meer, an IG Farben director and Nazi Party member who directed operations at the IG Farben plant at Auschwitz, was sentenced in 1948 to seven years for war crimes during the IG Farben Trial at Nuremberg. Disregard of basic human rights did not deter these defendants. 9". At Auschwitz they were led by Bayer employee Helmuth Vetter, an Auschwitz camp physician and SS captain, and Auschwitz physicians Friedrich Entress and Eduard Wirths. Orders to that effect again are to be given to the leading German gentlemen so that there may be no misunderstanding in their execution. [38] Degesch originally supplied the gas to Auschwitz to fumigate clothing that was infested with lice, which carried typhus. Five smaller firms, Agfa, Cassella, Chemische Fabrik Kalle, Chemische Fabrik Griesheim-Elektron and Chemische Fabrik vorm. [21], With the world market for synthetic dyes and other chemical products dominated by the German industry, German firms competed vigorously for market shares. Max Brüggemann (Farben's chief legal advisor) was removed from the trial and his case discontinued on September 9, 1947, due to medical reasons. Neither were production or distribution facilities consolidated nor did the commercial staff cooperate. IG Farben This was a ... they were gassed in the camp by a prized IG Farben product called Zyklon-B. [20] Because of this unique situation, the economic historian Alfred Chandler called the German dye companies "the world's first truly managerial industrial enterprises". According to prisoner-physicians who witnessed the experiments, after being given the drugs the women would experience circulation problems, bloody vomiting, and painful diarrhea "containing fragments of muscus membrane". The Jewish Council census notes that and even modern academics. IG Farben was the private German chemicals company allied with the Nazis that … The twelve U.S. trials are collectively known as the "Subsequent Nuremberg Trials" or, more formally, as the "Trials of War Criminals before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals" (NMT). Altogether its annual net profit was around RM 0.5 billion (equivalent to 2 billion 2017 euros). Also see .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg")right 0.1em center/12px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:none;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflink{font-weight:inherit}"Law No. He was a pioneer in the field of high-pressure industrial chemistry and founder of IG Farben, at one point the world's largest chemical company. In 1908 Hoechst and Cassella acquired 88 percent of the shares of Chemische Fabrik Kalle. Fritz ter Meer, the Bayer and IG Farben director convicted in Nuremberg for genocide and slavery crimes committed in Auschwitz , was released from prison after only four years. [26] The two alliances were loosely connected with each other through an agreement between BASF and Hoechst to jointly exploit the patent on the Heumann-Pfleger indigo synthesis. The United States of America vs. Carl Krauch, et al., also known as the IG Farben Trial, was the sixth of the twelve trials for war crimes the U.S. authorities held in their occupation zone in Germany (Nuremberg) after the end of World War II. The patients were suffering from, and in many cases had been deliberately infected with, typhoid, tuberculosis, diphtheria and other diseases, then were given preparations named Rutenol, Periston, B-1012, B-1034, B-1036, 3582 and P-111. Archived from the original on 19 April 2017. IG Farben-made Zyklon B poison gas canisters were thrown into the shower chambers. It consisted of hydrogen cyanide, as well as a cautionary eye irritant and one of several adsorbents such as diatomaceous earth. Carl Bosch and Friedrich Bergius were awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1931 "in recognition of their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods". Ernst Struss, secretary of the IG Farben's managing board, testified after the war that the company's chief engineer at Auschwitz had told him about the gassings. (Nitrate is an important component for the fabrication of explosives such as gunpowder, dynamite or TNT.) Aerial photograph of Auschwitz, June 1944, showing the IG Farben plant, Peter Hayes (2001): "[I]t was Zyklon B, a granular vaporizing pesticide, that asphyxiated the Jews of Auschwitz, and a subsidiary of IG, the Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Schädlingsbekämpfung MbH (German Vermin-Combating Corporation), or Degesch, that controlled the manufacture and distribution of the Zyklon. [62] As the Red Army approached Auschwitz in January 1945 to liberate it, IG Farben reportedly destroyed the company's records inside the camp,[63] and in the spring of 1945, the company burned and shredded 15 tons of paperwork in Frankfurt. [70] Ambros, Bütefisch, Dürrfeld, Krauch and ter Meer were convicted of "participating in ... enslavement and deportation for slave labor".[71]. Soon after the election of July, 1932, in which the Nazis had doubled their vote, Heinrich Buetefisch [chief of the I.G. More like 1.6 million. Thirteen defendants were found guilty,[68] with sentences ranging from 18 months to eight years. The SS had been declared a criminal organization previously by the IMT. "[47], Between 1942 and 1945 a cyanide-based pesticide, Zyklon B, was used to kill over one million people, mostly Jews, in gas chambers in Europe, including in the Auschwitz II and Majdanek extermination camps in German-occupied Poland. IG Farben was founded in December 1925 as a merger of six companies: BASF (27.4 percent of equity capital); Bayer (27.4 percent); Hoechst, including Cassella and Chemische Fabrik Kalle (27.4 percent); Agfa (9 percent); Chemische Fabrik Griesheim-Elektron (6.9 percent); and Chemische Fabrik vorm. [62], The Americans seized the company's property under "General Order No. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Zyklon B, developed by IG Farben. Head of dept. After the end of World War I, chemical companies in Germany merged to form IG Farben. 10, October 1946 â€“ April 1949", "Law Reports of Trials of War Criminals.

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